We assessed the survival outcomes associated with real-world bisphosphonate use, stratified by fracture site, type, administration, and duration of treatment, among patients with osteoporosis. A systematic review that incorporates our findings was conducted to provide up-to-date evidence on survival outcomes with bisphosphonate treatment in real-world settings. Patients diagnosed with osteoporosis who had been hospitalized for major fractures were identified from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database 2008–2017 and followed until 2018. There were 24,390 new bisphosphonate users who were classified and compared with 76,725 nonusers of anti-osteoporosis medications in terms of survival outcomes using Cox model analysis. An inverse probability of treatment weighted Cox model and landmark analyses for minimizing immortal time bias were also performed. Bisphosphonate users vs. nonusers had a significantly lower mortality risk, regardless of fracture site (hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for patients with any major fracture, hip fracture, and vertebral fracture: 0.90 (0.88, 0.93), 0.83 (0.80, 0.86), and 0.86 (0.82, 0.89), respectively). Compared with nonuse, zoledronic acid (0.77 (0.73, 0.82)) was associated with the lowest mortality, followed by ibandronate (0.85 (0.78, 0.93)) and alendronate/risedronate (0.93 (0.91, 0.96)). Using bisphosphonates for ≥ 3 years had lower mortality (0.60 (0.53, 0.67)) than using bisphosphonates for < 3 years (0.98 (0.95, 1.01)). Intravenous bisphosphonates had a lower mortality than that of oral bisphosphonates. Our results are consistent with the systematic review findings among real-world populations. In conclusion, bisphosphonate use, especially persistence to intravenous bisphosphonates (e.g., zoledronic acid), may reduce post-fracture mortality among patients with osteoporosis, particularly those with hip/vertebral fractures. This supports the rational use of bisphosphonates in post-fracture care.
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