Summary: We performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies to quantify the magnitude of the association between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and risk of hip fracture. Patients with PPIs had a greater risk of hip fracture than those without PPI therapy (RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.14–1.28, p < 0.0001). These results could be taken into consideration with caution, and patients should also be concerned about the inappropriate use of PPIs. Introduction: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are generally considered as first-line medicine with great safety profile, commonly prescribed for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and peptic ulcer disease. However, several epidemiological studies documented that long-term use of PPIs may be associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. Although, the optimal magnitude of the hip fracture risk is still undetermined. We, therefore, performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies to quantify the magnitude of the association between PPIs and risk of hip fracture. Methods: We collected relevant articles using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from January 1, 1990, to March 31, 2018. We included only the large (n ≥ 500) observational studies with a follow-up duration of at least one year in which the hip fracture patients were identified by a standard procedure. Two of the authors extracted data from each included study independently according to a standardized protocol. Results: A total of 24 observational studies with 2,103,800 participants (319,568 hip fracture patients) met all the eligibility criteria. Patients with PPIs had a greater risk of hip fracture than those without PPI therapy (RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.14–1.28, p < 0.0001). An increased association was also observed in both low and medium doses of PPI taken and hip fracture risk (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05–1.29, p = 0.002; RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.14–1.44, p < 0.0001), but it appeared to be even greater among the patients with higher dose (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.20–1.40, p < 0.0001). Moreover, the overall pooled risk ratios were 1.20 (95% CI 1.15–1.25, p < 0.0001) and 1.24 (95% CI 1.10–1.40, p < 0.0001) for the patients with short- and long-term PPI therapy, respectively, compared with PPI non-users. Conclusion: Our results suggest that PPI use is significantly associated with an increased risk of hip fracture development, which is not observed in H2RA exposure. Physicians should, therefore, exercise caution when considering a long-term PPI treatment to their patients who already have an elevated risk of hip fracture. In addition, patients should be concerned about the inappropriate use of PPIs; if necessary, then, they should continue to receive it with a clear indication.
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