Green tea and its major bioactive component, (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), possess diverse biological properties, particularly antiproliferation, antimetastasis, and apoptosis induction. Many studies have widely investigated the anticancer and synergistic effects of EGCG due to the side effects of conventional cytotoxic agents. This review summarizes recent knowledge of underlying mechanisms of EGCG on protective roles for endometrial, breast, and ovarian cancers based on both in vitro and in vivo animal studies. EGCG has the ability to regulate many pathways, including the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and protection against epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). EGCG has also been found to interact with DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), which affect epigenetic modifications. Finally, the action of EGCG may exert a suppressive effect on gynecological cancers and have beneficial effects on auxiliary therapies for known drugs. Thus, future clinical intervention studies with EGCG will be necessary to more and clear evidence for the benefit to these cancers.
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