Primary sternal osteomyelitis (PSO) is a rare syndrome. In adults, it usually occurs with underlying predisposing factors, such as immunodeficiency, or intravenous (IV) drug abuse. The infecting organism in these patients is usually Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Peptostreptococcus species are Gram-positive anaerobic cocci and are part of the normal flora of human mucocutaneous surfaces. Peptostreptococcus infection can occur in all body sites, including the central nervous system, head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin, bone, joint, and soft tissue. Here, we report on a 32-year-old previously healthy Chinese man who was diagnosed with PSO and P. anaerobius was yielded in the bacterial culture. He was treated empirically with antibiotics, but these failed. After additional limited surgical intervention with debridement, the PSO was cured.
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