Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among first responders for medical emergencies during COVID-19 pandemic: A meta-analysis

Garry Huang, Hsin Chu, Ruey Chen, Doresses Liu, Kondwani Joseph Banda, Anthony Paul O'Brien, Hsiu Ju Jen, Kai Jo Chiang, Jeng Fong Chiou, Kuei Ru Chou

研究成果: 雜誌貢獻文章同行評審

摘要

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been shown to cause enormous psychological burden among health care workers, including first responders. However, psychological well-being of first responders, essential in the fight against COVID-19 pandemic, has often been ignored. We performed the first meta-analysis to explore the prevalence of 1) depression, 2) anxiety, and 3) stress among first responders for medical emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted in Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsychInfo, PubMed, and the WHO COVID-19 database from 2020. The Freeman-Tukey double-arcsine transformation model in R-software determined the pooled prevalence and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis for associated factors of depression, anxiety, and stress with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). The Cochrane Q, τ2, and I2 statistics were used to examine heterogeneity. Sub-group analysis was conducted to identify moderator variables. Results: We identified 765 records, from which 17 studies were included with 8096 first responders. The pooled prevalence was 31% (95% CI = 21%-41%) for depression; 67% (95% CI = 64%-70%) for mild depression, 24% (95% CI = 17%-31%) for moderate depression, and 16% (95% CI = 4%-34%) for severe depression. The pooled prevalence for anxiety was 32% (95% CI = 20%-44%); 60% (95% CI = 46%-73%) for mild anxiety, 27% (95% CI = 14%-42%) for moderate anxiety, and 14% (95% CI = 7%-22%) for severe anxiety. The pooled prevalence for stress was 17% (95% CI = 4%-34%); 58% (95% CI = 38%-77%) for mild stress, 22% (95% CI = 5%-44%) for moderate stress, and 19% (95% CI = 5%-37%) for severe stress. The prevalence of depression was 37% (95% CI = 25%-52%) for paramedics, 28% (95% CI = 12%-54%) for EMS personnel and 22% (95% CI = 13%-33%) for police. Similarly, the prevalence of anxiety was 38% (95% CI = 20%-60%) for paramedics, 28% (95% CI = 11%-53%) for EMS personnel, and 19% (95% CI = 10%-32%) for police. Married responders were likely at risk for depression (1.50, 95% CI = 1.26-1.78) and anxiety (1.94, 95% CI = 1.62-2.33), while unmarried responders were less likely at risk for depression (0.67, 95% CI = 0.56-0.79) and anxiety (0.50, 95% CI = 0.43-0.63). Conclusions: High prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic among first responders for medical emergencies emphasizes the need for monitoring their psychological well-being. Early assessment and management of mild depression, anxiety, and stress among first responders are crucial in preventing progression into moderate and severe types.

原文英語
頁(從 - 到)5028
頁數1
期刊Journal of Global Health
12
DOIs
出版狀態已發佈 - 7月 25 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 健康政策
  • 公共衛生、環境和職業健康

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