Gas mixtures comprising H2:Ar:CH4 at various flow ratios were fed to a microwave plasma system during the preparation of Ti implants to form anticoagulation and antibacterial films composed of carbon-based nanowires (NWs). When the H2-flow ratio was increased, a phase transition (amorphization (α) → (α + quasi-α) → (α + quasi-α + NWs) → (α + quasi-α + NWs + multilayer-like NWs (MLNWs)) → (NWs/MLNWs with nanograins)) was observed within the films formed on Ti during the microwave plasma discharge. In addition to producing a nanostructural film made of NWs, plasma carbonization caused the formation of an NW/nanograin phase that can enhance the hydrophobic and anticoagulation properties. Moreover, antibacterial tests also demonstrated the crucial role played by the hydrophobic films made of NWs in improving the antibacterial performance of the implants. The enhanced anticoagulation and antibacterial properties render the nanostructural films made of NWs as one of the promising materials that can be used in the heart valves, coronary artery stents, and dental implant surgical kits.
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