Background: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is a disease with high morbidity and mortality. Extension of the hemorrhage into the ventricles is associated with the development of acute hydrocephalus and a poor outcome. Although it can be managed by external ventricular drainage (EVD), a subset of these patients require placement of permanent ventricular shunts. This study aimed to examine the factors on admission that can predict shunt dependency after EVD management. Methods: Seventy-two patients who underwent EVD were included in this study. Seventeen of these patients underwent placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Variables analyzed included age, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) score, bicaudate index, acute hydrocephalus, initial Glasgow Coma Scale scores, and blood volume in each ventricle. Results: In univariate analysis, IVH score (p = 0.020), bicaudate index (p < 0.001), blood volume in lateral ventricles (p = 0.025), blood volume in the fourth ventricle (p = 0.038), and the ratio of blood volume in lateral ventricles to that in third and fourth ventricles (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with persistent hydrocephalus. The best multiple logistic regression model included blood volume parameters and bicaudate index as predictors with the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.849. The variance inflation factor (VIF) showed that collinearity was not found among predictors. Patients diagnosed with acute hydrocephalus had less blood volume in the lateral ventricles (OR = 0.910) and had more blood volume in the third ventricle (OR = 3.174) and fourth ventricle (OR = 2.126). Conclusions: These findings may promote more aggressive monitoring and earlier interventions for persistent hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage in patients at risk.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine