Electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers of very small diameters have potential for integration into filters capable of increasing the particle filtration efficiency. To fulfill the requirements for high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters with a reasonable pressure drop, we generated aligned electrospun PAN fibers through pre-alignment at various rotation rates and subsequent solvent vapor annealing (SVA) under a loading. We evaluated the properties of microscaffold filters assembled from aligned electrospun PAN fibers in the form of linear, square, and triangular multiple meshes. The microscaffolds featuring multiple square meshes exhibited dramatically increased filtration efficiency without a significant pressure drop. A nine-layer cross-ply structure provided a filtration efficiency of 99.98% for 0.25-μm particles at a face velocity of 10 cm s−1; its filtration quality factor was the highest among all of the tested microscaffolds. Thus, HEPA filters featuring a low packing density can be achieved using PAN fibers.
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