Objective: This study investigated the occurrence of peritoneal fluid in women undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) and its correlation with the stage of pelvic endometriosis and its influence on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case-control design was used to recruit 272 infertile women with pelvic endometriosis. The treatment protocol consisted of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with downregulation and gonadotropin for IUI treatment following ultrasound and laparoscopic intervention. The amount and color of the peritoneal fluid were determined during laparoscopy. Results: The mean amount of peritoneal fluid with pelvic endometriosis that was detected using transvaginal ultrasound was ~15.1 mL. Women whose cycles contained more peritoneal fluid had significantly lower pregnancy rates (17.2% and 31.3%, respectively). The total clinical pregnancy rate was not significantly different between the two groups with reddish and yellowish peritoneal fluid who had pelvic endometriosis. Conclusion: Pelvic endometriosis and peritoneal fluid, detected through vaginal ultrasound, have negative effects on the pregnancy outcome of IUI treatment.
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