In the present study, we examined patterns of benzodiazepine (BZD) use in nurses, and compared the characteristics of frequent users with those of infrequent users. Data on all nurses enrolled in the study were derived from the reimbursement claim records in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2004-2008. The case group comprised 33 588 nurses with BZD use, and the control group was exactly matched to each case according to age and sex. The patterns of occasional, frequent, and daily BZD use demonstrated an increasing trend from 2004 to 2008. This trend was observed for most of the BZD with a short or intermediate half-life. Older nurses (>45 years) and those with greater experience (≥5 years) were more likely to use BZD frequently. Moreover, the risk of frequent BZD use increased significantly when nurses exhibited comorbid depression (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.58), anxiety (aOR: 1.78), or sleep disorders (aOR: 2.29) compared with infrequent BZD use. The results indicated that nurses with BZD use had comorbidities of anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders. The increasing trend of patterns of BZD use and its association with sleep disorders, depression, and anxiety can be used as references for stress and sleep management in nurses.