Conclusion: Palatoplasty can significantly decrease their middle ear re-intubation rate with a relatively lower hazard ratio compared to children who underwent VTI only. Objectives: In children with cleft palate, questions remain about the overall effect of ventilation tube insertion (VTI) and palatoplasty for their OME. A large-scale study might offer more evidence for the roles of palatal surgery. Subjects and methods: This was a retrospective birth cohort study based upon a national database. We analyzed children born between 1999–2004 and diagnosed as cleft palate and/or lips. These children, according to their surgeries, were separated into two groups: (1) VTI only, and (2) VTI and palatoplasty. Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test were used to calculate their cumulative tube re-insertion rates. Their hazard ratios of tube re-insertion were also analyzed. Results: In total, 1205 cleft children were collected, with 151 in the VTI only group and 1054 in the VTI + palatoplasty group. Ventilation tube re-insertion rates were significantly lower in the VTI + palatoplasty group (p = 0.002). The cumulative re-insertion rates also showed a significant difference (p = 0.001). When compared to the VTI only group, the adjusted hazard ratio was 0.528 in the VTI + palatoplasty group (p = 0.001).
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