Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces apoptotic insults to mouse cerebral endothelial cells via a Bax-mitochondria-caspase protease pathway

研究成果: 雜誌貢獻文章

45 引文 (Scopus)

摘要

Cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) are crucial components of the blood-brain barrier. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) can induce cell injuries. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of oxLDL on mouse CECs and its possible mechanisms. Mouse CECs were isolated from brain tissues and identified by immunocytochemical staining of vimentin and Factor VIII. oxLDL was prepared from LDL oxidation by copper sulfate. Exposure of mouse CECs to oxLDL decreased cell viability in concentration- and time-dependent manners. oxLDL time-dependently caused shrinkage of cell morphologies. Administration of oxLDL to CECs induced DNA fragmentation in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Analysis of the cell cycle revealed that oxLDL concentration- and time-dependently increased the proportion of CECs which underwent apoptosis. Analysis of confocal microscopy and immunoblot revealed that oxLDL significantly increased cellular and mitochondrial Bax levels as well as the translocation of this proapoptotic protein from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. In parallel with the increase in the levels and translocation of Bax, oxLDL time-dependently decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Exposure of mouse CECs to oxLDL decreased the amounts of mitochondrial cytochrome c, but enhanced cytosolic cytochrome c levels. The amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species were significantly augmented after oxLDL administration. Sequentially, oxLDL increased activities of caspase-9, -3, and -6 in time-dependent manners. Pretreatment with Z-VEID-FMK, an inhibitor of caspase-6, significantly decreased caspase-6 activity and the oxLDL-induced DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. This study showed that oxLDL induces apoptotic insults to CECs via signal-transducing events, including enhancing Bax translocation, mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species, and cascade activation of caspase-9, -3, and -6. Therefore, oxLDL can damage the blood-brain barrier through induction of CEC apoptosis via a Bax-mitochondria-caspase protease pathway.
原文英語
頁(從 - 到)42-53
頁數12
期刊Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
219
發行號1
DOIs
出版狀態已發佈 - 二月 15 2007

指紋

Mitochondria
Endothelial cells
Caspases
Peptide Hydrolases
Endothelial Cells
Cytochromes c
Caspase 6
oxidized low density lipoprotein
Caspase 9
DNA Fragmentation
Apoptosis
Blood-Brain Barrier
Caspase 3
Reactive Oxygen Species
Cells
Copper Sulfate
Confocal microscopy
Mitochondrial Membrane Potential
DNA
Factor VIII

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Toxicology

引用此文

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title = "Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces apoptotic insults to mouse cerebral endothelial cells via a Bax-mitochondria-caspase protease pathway",
abstract = "Cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) are crucial components of the blood-brain barrier. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) can induce cell injuries. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of oxLDL on mouse CECs and its possible mechanisms. Mouse CECs were isolated from brain tissues and identified by immunocytochemical staining of vimentin and Factor VIII. oxLDL was prepared from LDL oxidation by copper sulfate. Exposure of mouse CECs to oxLDL decreased cell viability in concentration- and time-dependent manners. oxLDL time-dependently caused shrinkage of cell morphologies. Administration of oxLDL to CECs induced DNA fragmentation in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Analysis of the cell cycle revealed that oxLDL concentration- and time-dependently increased the proportion of CECs which underwent apoptosis. Analysis of confocal microscopy and immunoblot revealed that oxLDL significantly increased cellular and mitochondrial Bax levels as well as the translocation of this proapoptotic protein from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. In parallel with the increase in the levels and translocation of Bax, oxLDL time-dependently decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Exposure of mouse CECs to oxLDL decreased the amounts of mitochondrial cytochrome c, but enhanced cytosolic cytochrome c levels. The amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species were significantly augmented after oxLDL administration. Sequentially, oxLDL increased activities of caspase-9, -3, and -6 in time-dependent manners. Pretreatment with Z-VEID-FMK, an inhibitor of caspase-6, significantly decreased caspase-6 activity and the oxLDL-induced DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. This study showed that oxLDL induces apoptotic insults to CECs via signal-transducing events, including enhancing Bax translocation, mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species, and cascade activation of caspase-9, -3, and -6. Therefore, oxLDL can damage the blood-brain barrier through induction of CEC apoptosis via a Bax-mitochondria-caspase protease pathway.",
keywords = "Apoptosis, Bax translocation, Caspase activation, Cerebral endothelial cells, Cytochrome c release, Mitochondrial dysfunction, Oxidized LDL",
author = "Chen, {Tyng Guey} and Chen, {Ta Liang} and Chang, {Huai Chia} and Yu-Ting Tai and Cherng, {Yih Giun} and Chang, {Ya Ting} and Chen, {Ruei Ming}",
year = "2007",
month = "2",
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pages = "42--53",
journal = "Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology",
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T1 - Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces apoptotic insults to mouse cerebral endothelial cells via a Bax-mitochondria-caspase protease pathway

AU - Chen, Tyng Guey

AU - Chen, Ta Liang

AU - Chang, Huai Chia

AU - Tai, Yu-Ting

AU - Cherng, Yih Giun

AU - Chang, Ya Ting

AU - Chen, Ruei Ming

PY - 2007/2/15

Y1 - 2007/2/15

N2 - Cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) are crucial components of the blood-brain barrier. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) can induce cell injuries. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of oxLDL on mouse CECs and its possible mechanisms. Mouse CECs were isolated from brain tissues and identified by immunocytochemical staining of vimentin and Factor VIII. oxLDL was prepared from LDL oxidation by copper sulfate. Exposure of mouse CECs to oxLDL decreased cell viability in concentration- and time-dependent manners. oxLDL time-dependently caused shrinkage of cell morphologies. Administration of oxLDL to CECs induced DNA fragmentation in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Analysis of the cell cycle revealed that oxLDL concentration- and time-dependently increased the proportion of CECs which underwent apoptosis. Analysis of confocal microscopy and immunoblot revealed that oxLDL significantly increased cellular and mitochondrial Bax levels as well as the translocation of this proapoptotic protein from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. In parallel with the increase in the levels and translocation of Bax, oxLDL time-dependently decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Exposure of mouse CECs to oxLDL decreased the amounts of mitochondrial cytochrome c, but enhanced cytosolic cytochrome c levels. The amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species were significantly augmented after oxLDL administration. Sequentially, oxLDL increased activities of caspase-9, -3, and -6 in time-dependent manners. Pretreatment with Z-VEID-FMK, an inhibitor of caspase-6, significantly decreased caspase-6 activity and the oxLDL-induced DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. This study showed that oxLDL induces apoptotic insults to CECs via signal-transducing events, including enhancing Bax translocation, mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species, and cascade activation of caspase-9, -3, and -6. Therefore, oxLDL can damage the blood-brain barrier through induction of CEC apoptosis via a Bax-mitochondria-caspase protease pathway.

AB - Cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) are crucial components of the blood-brain barrier. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) can induce cell injuries. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of oxLDL on mouse CECs and its possible mechanisms. Mouse CECs were isolated from brain tissues and identified by immunocytochemical staining of vimentin and Factor VIII. oxLDL was prepared from LDL oxidation by copper sulfate. Exposure of mouse CECs to oxLDL decreased cell viability in concentration- and time-dependent manners. oxLDL time-dependently caused shrinkage of cell morphologies. Administration of oxLDL to CECs induced DNA fragmentation in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Analysis of the cell cycle revealed that oxLDL concentration- and time-dependently increased the proportion of CECs which underwent apoptosis. Analysis of confocal microscopy and immunoblot revealed that oxLDL significantly increased cellular and mitochondrial Bax levels as well as the translocation of this proapoptotic protein from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. In parallel with the increase in the levels and translocation of Bax, oxLDL time-dependently decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Exposure of mouse CECs to oxLDL decreased the amounts of mitochondrial cytochrome c, but enhanced cytosolic cytochrome c levels. The amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species were significantly augmented after oxLDL administration. Sequentially, oxLDL increased activities of caspase-9, -3, and -6 in time-dependent manners. Pretreatment with Z-VEID-FMK, an inhibitor of caspase-6, significantly decreased caspase-6 activity and the oxLDL-induced DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. This study showed that oxLDL induces apoptotic insults to CECs via signal-transducing events, including enhancing Bax translocation, mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species, and cascade activation of caspase-9, -3, and -6. Therefore, oxLDL can damage the blood-brain barrier through induction of CEC apoptosis via a Bax-mitochondria-caspase protease pathway.

KW - Apoptosis

KW - Bax translocation

KW - Caspase activation

KW - Cerebral endothelial cells

KW - Cytochrome c release

KW - Mitochondrial dysfunction

KW - Oxidized LDL

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