Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder exhibiting alterations in spontaneous and task-related cerebral activity whose relation (termed "state dependence") remains unclear. For unraveling their relationship, we review recent electroencephalographic (and a few functional magnetic resonance imaging) studies in schizophrenia that assess and compare both rest/prestimulus and task states, ie, rest/prestimulus-task modulation. Results report reduced neural differentiation of task-related activity from rest/prestimulus activity across different regions, neural measures, cognitive domains, and imaging modalities. Together, the findings show reduced rest/prestimulus-task modulation, which is mediated by abnormal temporospatial dynamics of the spontaneous activity. Abnormal temporospatial dynamics, in turn, may lead to abnormal prediction, ie, predictive coding, which mediates cognitive changes and psychopathological symptoms, including confusion of internally and externally oriented cognition. In conclusion, reduced rest/prestimulus-task modulation in schizophrenia provides novel insight into the neuronal mechanisms that connect task-related changes to cognitive abnormalities and psychopathological symptoms.
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