Background/Aims: Cholecystectomy is generally performed to treat patients with gallstone disease (GSD) in clinical practice. The present study aimed to investigate whether type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may influence the overall survival of GSD patients. Methods: The National Health Insurance Research Database, a population-based registry data in Taiwan, was used to identify GSD patients from 2001 to 2008. The risk of cancers and effects of T2DM on the overall survival of GSD patients receiving cholecystectomy were estimated by hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Among 392,028 eligible GSD patients, 81,971 underwent cholecystectomy, whereas 310,057 did not. After cholecystectomy, the HR for developing cancer was 1.14. The HR for the overall survival was 0.74-fold lower for patients who underwent cholecystectomy than that for patients who did not. GSD patients without T2DM who underwent cholecystectomy (0.78-fold lower risk) had a longer survival, whereas those with T2DM had shorter survival (1.64-fold higher risk without cholecystectomy and 1.13-fold higher risk with cholecystectomy) compared with those without T2DM who did not undergo cholecystectomy. Conclusions: Our major findings suggest that T2DM may worsen the prognosis of GSD patients after cholecystectomy, which provides useful insight into the treatment of T2DM among GSD patients in clinical settings.
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