A diffusion-weighted (DW) template in a standard coordinate system is often necessary for the analysis of white matter (WM) structures using DW images. Although several DW templates have been constructed in the ICBM-152 space, a template for diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) is still lacking. In this study, we developed a DSI template in the ICBM-152 space from 122 healthy adults. This high quality template, NTU-DSI-122, was built through incorporating the macroscopic anatomical information using high-resolution T1-weighted images and the microscopic structural information obtained from DSI datasets. Two evaluations were conducted to examine the quality of NTU-DSI-122. The first evaluation examined the anatomical consistency of NTU-DSI-122 in matching to the ICBM-152 coordinate system. The results showed that this template matched to the ICBM-152 templates very well across the whole brain, not only in the deep white matter regions as other DW templates but also in the superficial white matter regions. In the second evaluation, a large number of independent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) datasets were registered to the DTI template derived from NTU-DSI-122. The examination was performed by quantifying the anatomical consistency among the registered DTI datasets. The results showed that using NTU-DSI-122 as the registration template the registered DTI datasets can achieve high anatomical alignment. Both evaluations demonstrate that NTU-DSI-122 is a useful high quality DW template. Therefore, NTU-DSI-122 can serve as a representative DSI dataset for a healthy adult population, and will be of potential value for brain research and clinical applications. The NTU-DSI-122 template is available at http://www.nitrc.org/projects/ntu-dsi-122/.
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