p53R2 is a p53-inducible human ribonucleotide reductase subunit involved in critical cellular mechanisms, such as DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, and mitochondrial homeostasis. Molecular investigations and animal studies have revealed functional regulations of p53R2 and its disease relevance. The relationship between p53R2 expression and disease progression in different cancers has been evaluated, and researchers have discovered novel transcription factors and cellular mechanisms that control p53R2 in a p53-independent manner. In addition, p53R2-Mediated mechanisms that affect mitochondria, inflammation, and cancer have been addressed. The role of p53R2 in mitochondria diseases and in cancer is discussed. Finally, p53R2 is taken as a potential target for cancer treatment. This review summarizes the general background, novel regulatory findings, and medical prospect of p53R2.
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