Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a digestive intermediate product that is a known indicator of chronic kidney disease. Its toxicity has also been suggested to accelerate chronic kidney disease. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been confirmed as a potential treatment in kidney regeneration. To determine the universal alteration in gene expression, we combined high-throughput microarray technology and in vitro culture of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells at different doses of IS (20, 40, 60 mg/l). We found that indoxyl sulfate has a remarkable interconnection with stem cell and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase pathways. In vitro results showed that indoxyl sulfate exerts anti-proliferation and anti-migration effects on ADMSCs. In addition, IS effects lead to increase in apoptotic cells and cells arrested at the G1 phase. Moreover, MEF2-A, MEF2-D and CACNA1S expression significantly decreased after indoxyl sulfate treatment. It can be speculated that following treatment with indoxyl sulfate, the function of ADMSCs is decreased and ADMSCs’ ability to support renal tubule regeneration in chronic kidney disease patients may be lower.
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