A novel, multilayered Ti/TiN diffusion barrier is proposed and successfully applied for Al metallization. The multilayered Ti/TiN structure is effective in enhancing the barrier properties since the very thin Ti layer inserted into titanium nitride (TiN) barrier can cause disruption of the TiN columnar growth and reduction of open grain boundaries resulting in retarded interdiffusion between metal and silicon. Multilayered Ti/TiN films are deposited sequentially by sputtering without breaking vacuum. It is found that TiN grain boundaries are discontinuous when a Ti layer is inserted into TiN. Multilayered Ti/TiN has a better barrier performance than single-layer TiN in Al metallization. However, the barrier performance is related to the number and thickness of the inserted Ti layers, because increasing titanium will enhance chemical reactions between Al and barrier layers, and produce more titanium-aluminum compounds. The total thickness of introduced Ti layers should be reduced to improve barrier performance.
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