Non-muscular invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is one of the most common cancer and major cause of economical and health burden in developed countries. Progression of NMIBC has been characterized as low-grade (Ta) and high grade (carcinoma in situ and T1). The current surgical intervention for NMIBC includes transurethral resection of bladder tumor; however, its recurrence still remains a challenge. The BCG-based immunotherapy is much effective against low-grade NMIBC. BCG increases the influx of T cells at bladder cancer site and inhibits proliferation of bladder cancer cells. The chemotherapy is another traditional approach to address NMIBC by supplementing BCG. Notwithstanding, these current therapeutic measures possess limited efficacy in controlling NMIBC, and do not provide comprehensive long-term relief. Hence, biomaterials and scaffolds seem an effective medium to deliver therapeutic agents for restructuring bladder post-treatment. The regenerative therapies such as stem cells and PRP have also been explored for possible solution to NMIBC. Based on above-mentioned approaches, we have comprehensively analyzed therapeutic journey from traditional to regenerative interventions for the treatment of NMIBC.
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