Hypoxic encephalopathy is rarely mentioned as a cause of neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) in children. We here report six cases of DI which occurred after severe hypoxic/ischaemic brain damage and include a review of the literature on 28 paediatric cases of neurogenic DI due solely to severe hypoxia/ischaemia. Airway obstruction, haemorrhagic shock and sudden infant death syndrome are the three major causes of hypoxia/ischaemia. The ages (25/28) ranged from 0.03 to 18 years (mean 7.27 years, median 5 years). The intervals between the hypoxic insult and the onset of DI (23/ 28) ranged from 0.08 days (2 h) to 13 days (mean 4.07 days, median 3.5 days). Linear regression analysis revealed no significant correlation between the age and the interval. Nine teen cases (82.6%) developed DI within 6 days after the hypoxic/ischaemic insult. Only two neonates survived with developmental delay. The remaining 26 cases died. Conclusion. Neurogenic DI can be caused by hypoxia/ischaemia and is an omnious sign of severe brain damage in children with hypoxic encephalopathy. It is important to recognize this potential sequel by regularly monitoring intake and output, plasma sodium level, and urine specific gravity.
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