Sleep disorders are frequently seen in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), including rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder and periodic limb movement disorder. However, knowledge about changes in non-REM sleep in patients with PD is limited. This study explored the characteristics of electroencephalography (EEG) during sleep in patients with PD and non-PD controls. We further conducted multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis to evaluate and compare the complexity of sleep EEG for the 2 groups. There were 9 patients with PD (Hoehn-Yahr stage 1 or 2) and 11 non-PD controls. All participants underwent standard whole-night polysomnography (PSG), which included 23 channels, 6 of which were for EEG. The raw data of the EEG were extracted and subjected to MSE analysis. Patients with PD had a longer sleep onset time and a higher spontaneous EEG arousal index. Sleep stage-specific increased MSE was observed in patients with PD during non-REM sleep. The difference was more marked and significant at higher time scale factors (TSFs). In conclusion, increased biosignal complexity, as revealed by MSE analysis, was found in patients with PD during non-REM sleep at high TSFs. This finding might reflect a compensatory mechanism for early defects in neuronal network control machinery in PD.
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