Probiotics are health beneficial bacterial populations colonizing the human gut and skin. Probiotics are believed to be involved in immune system regulation, gut microbiota stabilization, prevention of infectious diseases, and adjustments of host metabolic activities. Probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium affect glycemic levels, blood lipids, and protein metabolism. However, the interactions between probiotics and metabolic diseases as well as the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We used streptozotocin (STZ)induced diabetic animal models to study the effect of ProbiogluTM, a multi-strain probiotic supplement including Lactobaccilus salivarius subsp. salicinius AP-32, L. johnsonii MH-68, L. reuteri GL-104, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CP-9, on the regulation of physiochemical parameters related to type-2 diabetes. Experimental rats were randomly assigned into five groups, control group, streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats (STZ group), STZ + 1× ProbiogluTM group, STZ + 5× ProbiogluTM group, and STZ + 10× ProbiogluTM group, and physiological data were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8. Our results indicate that supplementation with ProbiogluTM significantly improved glucose tolerance, glycemic levels, insulin levels, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Furthermore, we observed reduction in urea and blood lipid levels, including low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol (TC). ProbiogluTM administration increased the β-cell mass in STZ-induced diabetic animal models, whereas it reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. In addition, the enhancement of oxidative stress biomarkers and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities was associated with a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. We conclude that ProbiogluTM attenuates STZ-induced type-2 diabetes by protecting β-cells, stabilizing glycemic levels, and reducing inflammation. Among all probiotic treating groups, the 10×ProbiogluTM treatment revealed the best results. However, these experimental results still need to be validated by different animal models of type-2 diabetes and human clinical trials in the future.
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