Paired stimulation of the brain and spinal cord can remodel the central nervous tissue circuitry in an animal model to induce motor neuroplasticity. The effects of simultaneous stimulation vary according to the extent and severity of spinal cord injury. Therefore, our study aimed to determine the significant effects on an incomplete SCI rat brain and spinal cord through 3 min and 20 min stimulations after 4 weeks of intervention. Thirty-three Sprague Dawley rats were classified into six groups: (1) normal, (2) sham, (3) iTBS/tsDCS, (4) iTBS/ts-iTBS, (5) rTMS/tsDCS, and (6) rTMS/ts-iTBS. Paired stimulation of the brain cortex and spinal cord thoracic (T10) level was applied simultaneously for 3–20 min. The motor evoked potential (MEP) and Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores were recorded after every week of intervention for four weeks along with wheel training for 20 min. Three-minute stimulation with the iTBS/tsDCS intervention induced a significant (p < 0.050 *) increase in MEP after week 2 and week 4 treatments, while 3 min iTBS/ts-iTBS significantly improved MEP (p < 0.050 *) only after the week 3 intervention. The 20 min rTMS/ts-iTBS intervention showed a significant change only in post_5 min after week 4. The BBB score also changed significantly in all groups except for the 20 min rTMS/tsDCS intervention. iTBS/tsDCS and rTMS/ts-iTBS interventions induce neuroplasticity in an incomplete SCI animal model by significantly changing electrophysiological (MEP) and locomotion (BBB) outcomes.
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