A series of naphthopyrans was synthesized employing silica supported fluoroboric acid under solvent free conditions in a microwave reactor. The catalytic influence of HBF4-SiO2 was investigated in detail to optimize the reaction conditions. The synthesised compounds were evaluated for in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity for the first time. Structure-activity relationship analyses have also been presented. Among the synthesised compounds, NP-17, NP-19, NP-20, NP-23, NP-24, NP-25 and NP-26 were the active inhibitors with an IC50 ranging from 4 to 17 μM. Compound NP-19 with a thiophenyl ring at position 1 emerged as the most potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor (IC50 = 4 μM) in comparison to allopurinol (IC50 = 11.10 μM) and febuxostat (IC50 = 0.025 μM). The basis of significant inhibition of xanthine oxidase by NP-19 was rationalized by its molecular docking at MTE binding site of xanthine oxidase.
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