With rapid industrialization, humans produce an increasing number of products. The composition of these products is usually decomposed. However, some substances are not easily broken down and gradually become environmental pollutants. In addition, these substances may cause bioaccumulation, since the substances can be fragmented into micro- and nanoparticles. These particles or their interactions with other toxic matter circulate in humans via the food chain or air. Whether these micro- and nanoparticles interfere with extracellular vesicles (EVs) due to their similar sizes is unclear. Micro- and nanoparticles (MSs and NSs) induce several cell responses and are engulfed by cells depending on their size, for example, particulate matter with a diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5). Autophagy is a mechanism by which pathogens are destroyed in cells. Some artificial materials are not easily decomposed in organisms. How do these cells or tissues respond? In addition, autophagy operates through two pathways (increasing cell death or cell survival) in tumorigenesis. Many MSs and NSs have been found that induce autophagy in various cells and tissues. As a result, this review focuses on how these particles interfere with cells and tissues. Here, we review MSs, NSs, and PM2.5, which result in different autophagy-related responses in various tissues or cells.
ASJC Scopus subject areas