Exhaustive exercise and endurance exercise training modify the physiological status of the body differently. The present study aimed to evaluate the alteration in biochemical composition with exhaustive and endurance exercises in rats using metabolomics strategy. The metabolite profile of liver tissue was investigated on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Data further underwent partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to compare the effects on metabolites in sedentary control, exhaustively exercised and endurance trained rats. GC-MS detected 115 highly reproducible peaks in chromatograms from individual liver tissue extracts, and we identified 55 of them. The three groups showed significant differences in metabolic profile. Changes in liver metabolism involved metabolites such as amino acids, fatty acids, organic acids, and carbohydrates. Endurance training elevated the greater rate of tricarboxylic acid cycle and antioxidant activity, and exhaustive exercise led to accumulated urea markers and an inflammation response in liver. In addition, GC-MS-based metabolomic analysis is a promising tool to investigate a pathological status with different exercise programs.
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