Background and Aims: Mesenteric ischemia is an uncommon disorder associated with an extremely high mortality rate. Only limited studies have evaluated this lethal disease among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the risks of mesenteric ischemia among ESRD patients and compare the incidence between two dialysis modalities. Methods: Records of all ESRD patients older than 20 years of age from 1998 to 2007 and a control group consisting of 1 million records were retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Hospitalizations for mesenteric ischemic events were retrieved using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and ICD-9-CM operation codes from inpatient claims. Results: Among 55,807 incident ESRD patients who received hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, there were 458 mesenteric ischemic events, corresponding to an incidence rate of 2.7 per 1,000 patient-years. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the independent risk factors were old age (HR 1.42 per 10 years), diabetes (HR 2.85), peripheral vascular disease (HR 2.66), atrial fibrillation (HR 2.15), heart failure (HR 1.65), chronic pulmonary disease (HR 1.41), neoplasm (HR 1.54), peptic ulcer disease (HR 1.86), and peritoneal dialysis (HR 1.51, all p <0.05). There was no effect of dialysis modality on the mesenteric ischemia mortality rate. Conclusion: The risk of mesenteric ischemia for ESRD patients was 44.1 (95% confidence interval 13.4-106.2, p <0.001) times higher than that of the general population. Compared to hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis was associated with a higher risk of mesenteric ischemia.
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