Plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 is a cell surface receptor for thyroid hormone at which nongenomic actions are initiated. L-thyroxine (T 4) and 3,3′,5- triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) promote angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation via the receptor. Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a deaminated T4 derivative, blocks the nongenomic proliferative and proangiogenic actions of T 4 andT 3. Acting at the integrin independently ofT 4 andT 3, tetrac and a novel nanoparticulate formulation of tetrac that acts exclusively at the cell surface have oncologically desirable antiproliferative actions on multiple tumor cell survival pathway genes. These agents also block the angiogenic activity of vascular growth factors. Volume and vascular support of xenografts of human pancreatic, kidney, lung, and breast cancers are downregulated by tetrac formulations. The integrin αvβ3 receptor site for thyroid hormone selectively regulates signal transduction pathways and distinguishes between unmodi- fied tetrac and the nanoparticulate formulation. The receptor also mediates nongenomic thyroid hormone effects on plasma membrane ion transporters and on intracellular protein trafficking.
|頁（從 - 到）||99-115|
|期刊||Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology|
|出版狀態||已發佈 - 二月 10 2011|
ASJC Scopus subject areas