Rationale: The endemic of peri-implantitis affects over 25% of dental implants. Current treatment depends on empirical patient and site-based stratifications and lacks a consistent risk grading system. Methods: We investigated a unique cohort of peri-implantitis patients undergoing regenerative therapy with comprehensive clinical, immune, and microbial profiling. We utilized a robust outlier-resistant machine learning algorithm for immune deconvolution. Results: Unsupervised clustering identified risk groups with distinct immune profiles, microbial colonization dynamics, and regenerative outcomes. Low-risk patients exhibited elevated M1/M2-like macrophage ratios and lower B-cell infiltration. The low-risk immune profile was characterized by enhanced complement signaling and higher levels of Th1 and Th17 cytokines. Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia were significantly enriched in high-risk individuals. Although surgery reduced microbial burden at the peri-implant interface in all groups, only low-risk individuals exhibited suppression of keystone pathogen re-colonization. Conclusion: Peri-implant immune microenvironment shapes microbial composition and the course of regeneration. Immune signatures show untapped potential in improving the risk-grading for peri-implantitis.
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