Background: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations were reported to decrease in patients with advanced cancer. However, the clinical significance of DHEA and DHEAS concentrations in patients with NSCLC receiving chemotherapy (CT) has not been sufficiently documented. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between mental health and hormone concentrations on patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional analysis based on a self-reported psychological investigation. Salivary samples were collected from 22 patients with advanced NSCLC after CT and 17 healthy controls. The concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, and cortisol were analyzed to investigate their associations with the results of self-reported questionnaires on psychological health. Results: Patients with advanced NSCLC exhibited significantly higher Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Startle, Physiological arousal, Anger, and Numbness-Chinese version (SPAN-C) scores, poorer health conditions, lower sleep quality, and more severe fatigue after CT than did healthy controls, and salivary concentrations of DHEA and DHEAS were significantly lower among patients after CT than among controls. DHEAS concentrations were negatively associated with depression scores (PHQ-9, r = −0.496, P = 0.019) and fatigue scores (Brief Fatigue Inventory-Taiwan, r = −0.562, P = 0.006). Conclusion: Patients with advanced NSCLC after CT had lower DHEA and DHEAS concentrations than did controls. Lower DHEAS concentrations were associated with higher fatigue and depression scores.
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