Women during pregnancy and postpartum show high rates of obesity and metabolic diseases, especially women with excessive caloric intake. In the past, it was proved that individuals with high intrinsic aerobic exercise capacities showed higher lipid metabolism and lower fat production than those with low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mice with the low-fitness phenotype (LAEC) were more likely to develop metabolic abnormalities and obesity under dietary induction after delivery, and if mice with a high-fitness phenotype (HAEC) had a protective mechanism. After parturition and weaning, postpartum Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice received dietary induction for 12 weeks and were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group): high-exercise capacity postpartum mice with a normal chow diet (HAEC-ND); high-exercise capacity postpartum mice with a high-fat diet (HAEC-HFD); low-exercise capacity postpartum mice with a normal chow diet (LAEC-ND); and low-exercise capacity postpartum mice with a high-fat diet (LAEC-HFD). Obesity caused by a high-fat diet led to decreased exercise performance (p < 0.05). Although there were significant differences in body posture under congenital conditions, the LAEC mice gained more weight and body fat after high-fat-diet intake (p < 0.05). Compared with HAEC-HFD, LAEC-HFD significantly increased blood lipids, such as total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and other parameters (p < 0.05), and the content of TG in the liver, as well as inducing poor glucose tolerance (p < 0.05). In addition, after HFD intake, excessive energy significantly increased glycogen storage (p < 0.05), but the LAEC mice showed significantly lower muscle glycogen storage (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although we observed significant differences in intrinsic exercise capacity, and body posture and metabolic ability were also different, high-fat-diet intake caused weight gain and a risk of metabolic disorders, especially in postpartum low-fitness mice. However, HAEC mice still showed better lipid metabolism and protection mechanisms. Conversely, LAEC mice might accumulate more fat and develop metabolic diseases compared with their normal rodent chow diet (ND) control counterparts.