Introduction: Hip fractures in the elderly impact negatively on functional dependence, and carry great social costs and morbidity. We assessed the decline in muscle mass and functional outcomes following hip fracture surgery. Material and methods: Thirty patients with a hip fracture (mean age: 80.8 years) were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and reassessed for changes in body composition 1 year after hip surgery. Baseline demographic data, sarcopenia, and bone mineral density were recorded. Body mass index (BMI), handgrip strength, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), total body fat percentage, and responses to questionnaires measuring quality of life and activities of daily living (ADL) before injury and 1 year after hip surgery were analyzed to identify changes. Associations with changes in ADL or quality of life were analyzed with time-variant independent variables. Results: Significant losses in ADL were identified at the 1-year follow-up, at which time only 43% of patients had regained their preinjury ADL status. Additionally, the participants had lost an average of 4.63% of ASM. ASM loss was significantly higher in patients with baseline sarcopenia than in those without (mean loss: 9.18% and 1.15%, respectively). When confounders were controlled for, a greater loss of ASM and handgrip strength and larger increase in BMI were associated with greater decrease in ADL 1 year after hip surgery. Conclusion: Geriatric hip fracture patients may experience a significant loss of muscle mass, associated with impaired functional recovery 1 year after hip surgery, highlighting a potential treatment target of maintaining muscle mass to improve prognosis in these patients.
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