Lipid peroxidation gives rise to carbonyl species, some of which are reactive and play a role in the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases. Oils are ubiquitous sources that can be easily oxidized to generate these compounds under oxidative stress. In this present work, we developed a targeted lipidomic method for the simultaneous determination of thirty-five aldehydes and ketones derived from fish oil, the omega-3 fatty acid-rich source, by using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). The analytes include highly toxic reactive carbonyl species (RCS) such as acrolein, crotonaldehyde, trans-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE), trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), trans-4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE), glyoxal and methylglyoxal, all of which are promising biomarkers of lipid peroxidation. They were formed using in vitro Fe(II)-mediated oxidation, and derivatized using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) for the feasibility of quantitative assay. Before analysis, solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to clean samples further. Uniquely different patterns of carbonyl compound generation between omega-3 and 6 fatty acids were observed using this lipidomic approach. The method developed was both validated, and successfully applied to monitor formation of carbonyl species by lipid peroxidation using ten different fish oil products. Hypotheses of correlations between the monitored dataset of analytes and their parent fatty acids were also tested using the Pearson's correlation test. Results indicate our method is a useful analytical tool for lipid peroxidation studies.
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Suh, J. H., Niu, Y. S., Hung, W. L., Ho, C. T., & Wang, Y. (2017). Lipidomic analysis for carbonyl species derived from fish oil using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Talanta, 168, 31-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2017.03.023