The insulin-like growth factor II receptor (IGF-IIR) induces myocardial hypertrophy under various pathological conditions like diabetes and hypertension via G protein receptors like Gαq or Gαs. Increased expression of the ligand IGF II and IGF-IIR induces pathological hypertrophy through downstream signaling mediators such as calcineurin, nuclear factor of activated T cells 3 and calcium-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase II (CaMKII)-histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). The dried stigma of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) has a long repute as a traditional medicine against various disorders. In the present study, we have investigated whether C. sativus extract (CSE) canameliorate Leu27IGF-II triggered hypertrophy and have elucidated the underlying mechanism of protection. Additionally, the effects of oleic acid (OA), an activator of calcineurin and CaMKII was investigated thereof. The results demonstrate that CSE can ameliorate Leu27IGF-II-induced hypertrophy seemingly through regulation of calcineurin-NFAT3 and CaMKII-HDAC4 signaling cascade.
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