Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a natural fibrin meshwork material with multiple functions that are suitable for tissue engineering applications. PRF provides a suitable scaffold for critical-size bone defect treatment due to its platelet cytokines and rich growth factors. However, the structure of PRF not only promotes cell attachment but also, due to its density, provides a pool for cell migration into the PRF to facilitate regeneration. In our study, we used repeated freeze drying to enlarge the pores of PRF to engineer large-pore PRF (LPPRF), a type of PRF that has expanded pores for cell migration. Moreover, a biodegradable Mg ring was used to provide stability to bone defects and the release of Mg ions during degradation may enhance osteoconduction and osteoinduction. Our results revealed that cell migration was more extensive when LPPRF was used rather than when PRF was used and that LPPRF retained the growth factors present in PRF. Moreover, the Mg ions released from the Mg ring during degradation significantly enhanced the calcium deposition of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. In the present study, a bone substitute comprising LPPRF combined with a Mg ring was demonstrated to have much potential for critical-size bone defect repair.
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