Probiotic supplements are potential therapeutic agents for age-related disorders due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of probiotics on age-related brain dysfunction remains unclear. To investigate the effects of Lactobacillus paracasei PS23 (LPPS23) on the progression of age-related cognitive decline, male and female senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were divided into two groups (n = 6 each): the control and PS23 groups. From the age of 16 weeks, these groups were given saline and LPPS23, respectively, because SAMP8 mice start aging rapidly after four months of age. After 12 weeks of treatment, we evaluated the effect of LPPS23 by analyzing their appearance, behavior, neural monoamines, anti-oxidative enzymes, and inflammatory cytokines. The PS23 group showed lower scores of senescence and less serious anxiety-like behaviors and memory impairment compared to the control group. The control mice also showed lower levels of neural monoamines in the striatum, hippocampus, and serum. Moreover, LPPS23 induced the anti-oxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Higher levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1) and lower levels of interleukin (IL)-10 indicated that LPPS23 modulated the inflammation. Our results suggest that LPPS23 supplements could delay age-related cognitive decline, possibly by preventing oxidation and inflammation and modulating gut-brain axis communication.
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