The use of nebulisers lacks standardisation, which may account for certain inefficiency. As part of a study of α 1 protease inhibitor (α1 PI) nebulisation for pulmonary administration, we studied the influence of technological parameters that is to say the nebuliser and the dynamic conditions (airflow and pressure) on nebulisation quality. The quality of nebulisation is evaluated by measurement of the percentage of droplets below 5.79 μm, the quantity of α1 PI nebulised, the quantity of α1 PI likely to reach the lungs and nebulisation time. The use of different dynamic conditions results in variable nebulisation quality. Depending upon the power of the compressor and the type of nebuliser, drug delivery varies. The association of high airflow and high pressure improves the respirable fraction and compliance by decreasing nebulisation time. Although droplet size is a commonly used parameter, it is not sufficient to forecast efficiency. It must be associated with the quantity of drug nebulised and, to a lesser extent, nebulisation time. The nebuliser is also to be taken into consideration. The characteristics of the constituent nebuliser elements, that is to say liquid and air tube orifices, size and shape of the reservoir, shape and position of the impartion system, are preponderant on nebulisation quality.
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