Seventy-six splenectomized dogs were entered in a study of the value and effects of isovolemic hemodilution. Of these, seven were not included in the analysis because of technical errors. Of the remaining 69 dogs, 35 were treated with hemodilution; 28 were subjected to a 6-hour period of temporary occlusion of the distal internal carotid artery and the proximal middle cerebral artery, and seven underwent a sham operation only, with arterial manipulation but no occlusion. The other 34 dogs were not subjected to hemodilution; 26 of these underwent temporary arterial occlusion and eight had a sham operation only. In each group the animals were about equally divided into 1) an acute protocol with regional cerebral blood flow measurements by a radioactive microsphere technique and sacrifice at the end of the acute experiment, and 2) a chronic protocol with survival for 1 week to permit daily neurological assessment and final histopathological examination but without blood flow measurements. The general experimental protocol, the hemodynamic and rheological measurements, and the changes in intracranial pressure are described in Part 1 of this report. In the animals with arterial occlusion, blood flow decreased significantly in the territory of the ischemic middle cerebral artery. This decrease was partially reversed by hemodilution in the animals so treated. When the changes in blood flow before and after hemodilution in treated animals are compared with the changes at equivalent times in animals without hemodilution, the increases in flow in the gray matter of the ischemic hemisphere brought about by hemodilution are statistically significant. The neurological condition of the animals in the chronic protocol (sacrificed 1 week after occlusion) with hemodilution, as evaluated by daily neurological assessment, was significantly better than that of the control animals. In the animals sacrificed acutely (8 hours after arterial occlusion), the volume of infarction as estimated by the tetrazolium chloride histochemical method was 7.36% of the total hemispheric volume in the control animals and 1.09% in the hemodiluted animals, showing a statistically significant difference (p < 0.005). In the chronic animals these values were 9.48% and 1.26%, respectively (p < 0.005), as calculated by fluorescein staining. By histopathological examination the volume of infarction in the chronic animals was calculated as 10.92% in the control animals and 1.20% in the hemodiluted animals (p < 0.005). There was good correlation between the size of infarction and the decrease in hematocrit and viscosity, and excellent correlation between the size of infarction estimated by fluorescein and that determined by histopathological examination in each animal in the chronic group.
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