Combined effects of hyaluronate and indomethacin in the treatment of rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) were evaluated by assessing joint swelling, C-reactive protein (CRP) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2) levels with periodic intra-articular (ia) injections of hyaluronate alone (HA group) and with either a low or high concentration of indomethacin (LI-HA or HI-HA group). End-point analyses included matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3) activity and macroscopic and histological joint examinations. Results demonstrated that treatment in LI-HA and HI-HA groups resulted in statistically significant suppression of CRP, PGE2, and MMP-3 in comparison with those of HA group. Inhibition of serum CRP was only observed in LI-HA group. The order of serum MMP-3 inhibition was LI-HA>HI-HA>HA. Based on macroscopic and histological analyses of pannus formation, hyperplasia, inflammation, joint leakage and erosion, and loss of proteoglycan, the only statistically significant improvement was shown in LI-HA group compared to HA group and HI-HA group compared to control group.
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Lo, Y. J., Sheu, M. T., Tsai, W. C., Lin, Y. H., Li, J. L., Liang, Y. C., Chang, C. C., Hsieh, M-S., & Chen, C. H. (2007). Intra-articular injection of hyaluronate and indomethacin in rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis. Rheumatology International, 27(12), 1099-1111. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00296-007-0346-1