An influenza vaccination might reduce the risk of incident peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but supporting evidence is limited. This case-crossover study analyzed data from Taiwan’s real-world National Health Insurance Research Database. This study included elderly (≥ 67 years old) patients with CKD having incident PAOD from January 1, 2006, to June 30, 2015. We defined 1 year before PAOD onset as the index date for the self-control group. A conditional logistic regression model was used to investigate exposure to an influenza vaccination for estimating the risk for incident PAOD following vaccination. In total, this study included 46,782 elderly patients with CKD having incident PAOD. The odds ratios for incident PAOD were 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.77–0.94), 0.85 (0.79–0.92), 0.84 (0.79–0.90), and 0.85 (0.81–0.90) at 1, 2, 3, and 4 months after an influenza vaccination, respectively. We observed consistent results for the subgroups of patients with CKD and concomitant diabetes. However, we did not observe any beneficial effects of influenza vaccination in patients with advanced CKD or end-stage renal disease. This study demonstrated that influenza vaccination may be associated with a reduced risk of incident PAOD among patients with early-stage CKD.
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