BACKGROUND: The aims of this study are to (i) evaluate the effects of color enhancers, caramel (C) and molasses (M), on acrylamide and 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) formation in non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS) and to (ii) perform nine-point hedonic scale and evaluation of sensory attributes, encompassing the appearance, flavor, texture and aftertaste, by 71 consumers on NCS, NCS_C, and NCS products made with a blend of molasses and sugar (NCS_MS) and steam processing (NCS_S).
RESULTS: With the addition of molasses and caramel at the maximum allowable level of 5 g kg -1 in sugarcane juice, significantly greater acrylamide or HMF did not accumulate in NCS_C and NCS_M during the thermal manufacturing process, while color values of NCS_C significantly changed (P < 0.05). The increases in acrylamide and HMF contents were influenced by pH because they were produced by the Maillard reaction. Hedonic responses showed that NCS_MS was rated with the highest score for overall acceptance, whereas NCS_S, with the lowest content of acrylamide, exhibited the lowest score for every attribute. In addition, the appearance acceptance score of NCS_C was significantly higher than that of NCS (P < 0.05). Significant differences were also found between NCS and NCS_C in the frequency of 9 of 16 items with which consumers selected to characterize the appearance in a check-all-that-apply questionnaire (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The association between hedonic evaluations and sensory profiles in visual attributes of NCS_C indicated that caramel could be a promising addition in Maillard reaction-mitigated NCS products to improve consumer preferences through color strengthening without safety concerns. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Nutrition and Dietetics