Inflammation is involved in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. However, the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory drugs in diabetic therapy remains obscure. In the present study, the possible mechanisms of indomethacin, one of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, in the improvement of insulin resistance were investigated. Indomethacin treatment significantly decreased cotton pellet implantation induced white blood cell count elevation and immune cells infiltration in epididymal white adipose tissue. Also, cotton pellet implantation induced impaired glucose utilization and insulin resistance were improved by indomethacin. The decrement in phosphoinsulin receptor and phospho-Akt levels induced by cotton pellet implantation was improved by indomethacin as well. Moreover, indomethacin decreased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in epididymal white adipose tissue with a marked reduction of prostaglandin 2 (PGE2) and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels in cotton pellet-implanted mice. Furthermore, pretreatment of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ(PPARγ) antagonist, GW9662 not only reversed indomethacin-modified COX-2 and iNOS levels but also reversed indomethacin-improved insulin sensitivity determined by homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Taken together, indomethacin might elevate the expression of PPARγ to decrease serum NOx and PGE2 to result in the improvement of insulin resistance.
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