Purpose: In previous studies, benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) and urinary tract symptoms were demonstrated to be associated with depressive symptoms. However, no longitudinal follow-up study to date has evaluated the relationship between BPE and the subsequent risk of developing depressive disorder. This nationwide, population-based study aimed to prospectively examine the relationship between a history of BPE and the risk of developing depressive disorder. Materials and methods: A total of 16,130 adult patients diagnosed with BPE for the first time between 2005 and 2007 were recruited along with a comparison cohort of 48,390 matched enrollees without a history of BPE. All the subjects were tracked for a one-year period following their index date to identify those who subsequently developed a depressive disorder. The Cox proportional hazards model was utilized to compute the risk difference for depressive disorder between cohorts. Results: Of 64,520 sampled patients, 325 (2.01%) from the BPE cohort, and 531 (1.10%) from the comparison cohort were subsequently diagnosed with depressive disorder during the follow-up period. The risk of developing depressive disorder within one-year following diagnosis with BPE was found to be 1.87 (95% CI = 1.63-2.16, p < 0.001) times the risk in absence of BPE after adjusting for the patients' monthly income, and the geographical location and urbanization level of their place of residence. Conclusions: Our results suggest that patients with BPE are at an increased risk for contracting depressive disorder.
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