BACKGROUND: The prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving renal replacement therapy in Taiwan is the highest in the world. The Taiwan Society of Nephrology has made a lot of effort to decrease the incidence of ESRD, compared with the previous cohort report (year 2000 to 2009). The aim of study was to confirm this phenomenon from Taiwan Renal Registry Data System (TWRDS) database 2005-2012. METHOD: We analyzed TWRDS database from 2005-2012. RESULTS: The prevalence of ESRD increased from 2111 to 2926 per million of the population, while the incidence of ESRD increased from 376 to 426 per million populations. There was a trend where the subgroup age d more than 75 years was increasing, but the incidence of ESRD in other age groups (aged between 45-64 and 20-44) had stabilized. In addition, the incidence of males was increasing faster than females. Finally, the proportion of diabetes was up to 47.9% in the incident patients of ESRD. CONCLUSIONS: In the latest TWRDS database from 2005 to 2012, Taiwan still has high prevalence and incidence of ESRD in the world. However, the increase in young and middle aged, female ESRD patients have stabilized after commencing multi-disciplinary care program in hospitals since 2003. Further investigation of life span in ESRD patients among different genders and age groups is warranted.