Due to poor vessel quality in patients with cardiovascular diseases, there has been an increased demand for small-diameter tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used as replacement grafts in bypass surgery. Decellularization techniques to minimize cellular inflammation have been applied in tissue engineering research for the development of small-diameter vascular grafts. The biocompatibility of allogenic or xenogenic decellularized matrices has been evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Both short-term and long-term preclinical studies are crucial for evaluation of the in vivo performance of decellularized vascular grafts. This review offers insight into the various preclinical studies that have been performed using decellularized vascular grafts. Different strategies, such as surface-modified, recellularized, or hybrid vascular grafts, used to improve neoendothelialization and vascular wall remodeling, are also highlighted. This review provides information on the current status and the future development of decellularized vascular grafts.
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