The critical factors for regulating cancer metabolism are oxidative stress and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/AKT serine-threonine kinase/mechanistic target of the rapamycin kinase (PI3K/AKT/mTOR). However, the metabolic impacts of oxidative stress and PI3K/AKT/mTOR on individual mechanisms such as glycolysis (Warburg effect), pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), fatty acid synthesis, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle, glutaminolysis, and oxidative phosphoryla-tion (OXPHOS) are complicated. Therefore, this review summarizes the individual and interacting functions of oxidative stress and PI3K/AKT/mTOR on metabolism. Moreover, natural products pro-viding oxidative stress and PI3K/AKT/mTOR modulating effects have anticancer potential. Using the example of brown algae-derived fucoidan, the roles of oxidative stress and PI3K/AKT/mTOR were summarized, although their potential functions within diverse metabolisms were rarely in-vestigated. We propose a potential application that fucoidan may regulate oxidative stress and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling to modulate their associated metabolic regulations. This review sheds light on understanding the impacts of oxidative stress and PI3K/AKT/mTOR on metabolism and the future direction of metabolism-based cancer therapy of fucoidan.
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