Background: Several polymorphisms in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 genes are associated with the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Certain genetic polymorphisms may modify the deleterious effects of environmental factors such as cigarette smoking and may also modify the inherited risk. We investigated the association of six ACE and ACE2 polymorphisms with ESRD to determine whether a relationship exists between gene-smoking interactions and ESRD. Materials and methods: We performed a case-control association study and genotyped 683 ESRD patients and 653 healthy controls. All subjects were genotyped for ACE (I/D, G2350A and A-240T) and ACE2 (G8790A, A1075G and G16854C) gene polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Results: Significant associations were observed between ACE I/D and G2350A polymorphisms and ESRD. There was no difference in ACE2 genotype distribution between ESRD patients and healthy controls. Haplotype analysis showed that DAA and DAT haplotypes were risk factors for ESRD. Moreover, a gene-environment interaction was observed between ACE I/D polymorphism and cigarette smoking. Conclusion: ACE I/D and ACE G2350A polymorphisms were associated with the development of ESRD. The interaction between ACE I/D polymorphism and smoking is also associated with an enhanced risk of ESRD.
|頁（從 - 到）||203-210|
|期刊||JRAAS - Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System|
|出版狀態||已發佈 - 3月 15 2015|
ASJC Scopus subject areas