The inflammatory activation and recruitment of defined myeloid populations is essential for controlling the bridge between innate and adaptive immunity and shaping the immune response to microbial challenge. However, these cells exhibit significant functional heterogeneity and the inflammatory signals that differentially influence their effector characteristics are poorly characterized. In this study, we defined the phenotype of discrete subsets of effective antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the peritoneal cavity during peritonitis. When the functional properties of these cells were compared to inflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages we noted differential responses to the immune-modulatory cytokine IL-10. In contrast to the suppressive actions of IL-10 on inflammatory macrophages, the recruitment of APCs was relatively refractory and we found no evidence for selective inhibition of APC differentiation. This differential response of myeloid cell subsets to IL-10 may thus have limited impact on development of potentially tissue-damaging adaptive immune responses, while restricting the magnitude of the inflammatory response. These findings may have clinical relevance in the context of peritoneal dialysis patients, where recurrent infections are associated with immune-mediated membrane dysfunction, treatment failure, and increased morbidity.
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