Background and purpose: Poorly controlled blood glucose was reported to cause deterioration of acute ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigated whether an elevated admission serum glucose level in the 3-h time window of intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke determined poor functional outcomes among Chinese population. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. From December 1, 2004 to December 31, 2016, a total of 2370 patients were enrolled and categorized into two cohorts by blood glucose levels of ≥200 and <200 mg/dl in the 3 h after stroke onset. The primary objective was to determine whether admission hyperglycemia increased major disability and death at 30 and 90 days, which was defined by a modified Rankin Scale of 3–6. The secondary objective was to determine whether admission hyperglycemia increased the symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) at 90 days. The number needed to harm (NNH) and patient expected event rate (PEER) were evaluated for both the primary and secondary objectives. Results: The primary outcome occurred in 216 of 305 patients (70.8%) in the blood glucose ≥200 mg/dl cohort and in 951 of 1587 patients (59.9%) in the blood glucose <200 mg/dl cohort at 30 days, and in 191 of 287 patients (66.6%) in the blood glucose ≥200 mg/dl cohort and in 827 of 1517 patients (54.5%) in the blood glucose <200 mg/dl cohort at 90 days. Patients with admission hyperglycemia had significantly increased major disability and death at 30 (adjusted relative risk (RR): 1.194 [1.073–1.329], p = 0.0012) and 90 days (adjusted RR: 1.203 [1.079–1.340], p = 0.0008). Admission hyperglycemia increased the risk of the occurrence of SICH by nearly 2-fold (adjusted RR: 1.891 [0.977–3.657], p = 0.0585 with the SITS-MOST criteria and adjusted RR: 1.884 [1.138–3.121], p = 0.0139 with the NINDS criteria). NNH values of admission hyperglycemia in major disability and death at 30 and 90 days were 9 and 10, and NNH values of SICH by the SITS-MOST NINDS criteria were 44 and 34, respectively. Conclusions: The study evidenced the association and temporal relationship of admission hyperglycemia causing deterioration of functional outcomes and increased SICH among Chinese population with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis.
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