Objective: To study whether and how the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is related to epigenetic aberrations. Design: A case-control experimental study. Setting: Tertiary university hospital. Patient(s): Eighteen patients with PCOS and ten non-PCOS control subjects. Interventions(s): Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were obtained from skin fibroblasts through the application of nonviral episomal reprogramming and were differentiated into ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) with the use of a cocktail of growth factors. Primary ovarian GCs were collected during transvaginal oocyte retrieval surgery. Main Outcome Measure(s): Characterization and functional validation of iPSC-derived GCs were conducted. Whole-genomic DNA methylation profiles in women with and without PCOS in both iPSC-derived GCs and primary adult GCs were analyzed with the use of the Illumina 850K MethylationEPIC Beadchip. Result(s): The iPSC-derived GCs successfully expressed GC-associated genes and aromatase activity after differentiation. Whole-genomic DNA methylation analysis of the iPSC-derived GCs and adult GCs both revealed a hyperactive CREB signaling pathway in the PCOS group compared with the control group. The expression of CREB-binding protein (CBP) mRNA was significantly higher in the iPSC-derived GCs in the PCOS group, and the expression of CBP protein was also significantly higher in the primary GCs from women with PCOS. Conclusion(s): The combination of DNA methylomic analysis in primary adult GCs and iPSC-derived GCs showed that a preserved persistent hyperactivation of the CREB signaling pathway might be involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. These results could have implications on the early developmental origin, inheritance nature, and environmental interaction effects of this disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas